Emerging market companies

Companies operating in emerging markets

Not all companies listed on Australian share exchanges operate in Australia. Over 700 companies listed on the Australian Securities Exchange (ASX) have business operations or assets outside Australia.

These companies can sometimes offer attractive returns; but it pays to find out where the company carries on business and whether this can increase the risk of losing some or all of your investment.

What are emerging market companies?

Some of the ASX-listed companies that operate overseas are well-known and do business in established markets such as the United States or Japan.

 However, others operate in less established markets such as:

  • Asia (other than Hong Kong and Japan)
  • The Pacific (other than New Zealand)
  • Central or South America
  • Africa
  • Eastern Europe
  • The Middle East

Companies operating in these areas are known as 'emerging market companies'.

Emerging market companies may:

  • Have significant assets, operations and revenue streams based in an emerging market
  • Have directors and senior management based overseas
  • Engage an overseas auditor
  • Be listed on a foreign exchange as well as the ASX

Understand the risks

While many emerging market companies are well-managed, there can be risks associated with distance, cultural differences and variations in legal and political systems that may not affect Australian-operated companies.

The risks will be different for each company.

For example, a company:

  • May need to operate across several languages, currencies, and cultural systems, which can lead to miscommunication or loss of funds due to poor currency management
  • May have complex corporate structures to facilitate business, due to restrictions on foreign ownership
  • May rely too much on the guidance and connections of one key person located overseas, which can make it difficult to access reliable information or lead to that person receiving substantial financial benefits
  • May have inadequate risk management and internal controls which may result in financial loss
  • May not provide or be able to access reliable information on its operation and performance for auditing purposes. This may mean that financial reports do not accurately reflect the company's financial position.

It's also important to remember that emerging market companies are not always subject to the same regulatory supervision as Australian-operated companies.

For example, if a company is registered in a country other than Australia, it may not have to comply with the Corporations Act. As a shareholder, this may mean your investment has less protection than it would have if the company was registered in Australia, under our laws.

If you already own shares in a company and it's the target of a takeover bid, you should carefully read the bidder's statement to see if the offer is for shares in a company with operations or assets overseas. See takeovers for more information about assessing a takeover offer. 

lady-on-computerCase study: Kristen invests in an emerging market company

Kristen has a share portfolio that she manages herself so she likes to keep up to date with different investment opportunities.

She recently read that some companies are being set up overseas to take advantage of developing economies. She was particularly interested in a mining company in an emerging economy.Mining companies in Australia had been doing really well, and the company was listed on the ASX, so she thought it would be a good investment. But when she received the first annual report, she was surprised to see that the company had suffered a substantial loss due to the payment of a fraudulent invoice.

There were legal proceedings underway to recover the money, but because the mining company operated under different laws and regulations, it was likely to be difficult for the company to get the money back.

Before you invest

Before you invest in or vote on a takeover offer from a company operating in an emerging market, read the prospectus, annual reports and / or the bidder's statement, and consider the following:


  • Where are the major assets or operations of the company located?
  • Are the assets held directly or indirectly through a foreign partner?


  • Where are the directors and management located?
  • Does the company rely on an individual or key person to facilitate their overseas dealings or operations and how much control does that person have?
  • Does the board contain independent directors?

Company structure

  • Is the company's structure so complex that it is hard to understand where the assets are held or who has control over them?

Regulation & reporting

  • What is the regulatory regime in which the entity operates and is it similar to Australia?
  • Is the jurisdiction where the company is based or operating from volatile or risky (for example, does the company need regulatory approvals from a government under an unstable political regime)?
  • Who are the company's auditors, what is their reputation, where are they located and what did they say in their audit opinion?

Related parties

  • Can you see evidence of substantial loans to and from parties related to the company? Look for any 'related party contracts' or 'material contracts' listed in the prospectus.

Use these questions as prompts to help you consider the particular management and operational challenges that may arise more often for emerging market companies, than for companies operating in Australia.

See annual reports for tips on assessing whether you should invest in a company.

Before you invest, make sure you're aware of and comfortable with the risks of investing in or accepting a takeover offer from a company operating in an emerging market. If you are unsure whether the investment is right for you, speak to your stockbroker or see a licensed financial adviser.

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Last updated: 11 Dec 2018